Stephen Arata examines the effect of the late-Victorian era’s perceived decline on late-nineteenth-century fiction, underlining the multiplicity of readings that degeneration theory allows due to the difficulty in defining the term. The various disciplines upon which degeneration encroached ranged from biology, criminology, psychology and art. Likewise, scholars identify the late-nineteenth-century Gothic link with fears of a dangerous lower-class “race”; the relocation of the era’s Gothic fiction to urban environments; the loss of stability of the human identity and the emergence of the “abhuman”; or the connection between immorality, aestheticism and degeneration.
However, contemporary research does not address the incidence of suicide in late-Victorian Gothic fiction, nor does it acknowledge the emergence of suicide as a Gothic trope. It has been discussed that the popular nineteenth-century consideration of suicide was a symptom of degeneration and thus a necessary outcome. The suicides in the novels discussed below give an insight into the era’s debates and attitudes towards the phenomenon of suicide and degeneration by exploring the representation of some late-nineteenth-century Gothic characters and the possible link between these degenerate figures and their suicides.
Stephen Arata discusses the similarities between Mr Hyde and the late-nineteenth-century perception of lower-class degenerates, likening the descriptions of Mr Hyde to Cesare Lombroso’s atavistic criminal man. Julia Reid outlines Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson’s1 interests in evolution, inheritance and the “savagery” of man’s ancestors. Neither, however, examines Dr Jekyll’s suicide, despite suicide becoming increasingly integrated into degeneration theory. This section investigates whether Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde is representative of a late-nineteenth-century degenerate. By determining Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson’s engagement with wider nineteenth-century theories, I begin to unravel the significance of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde motifs for suicide.
British psychiatrist Henry Maudsley believed that the moral sense, which encompassed such faculties as social instincts, will and reason, elevated humans to a position above that of the animals and that without the moral sense: “[man is] stripped of all his essential human qualities and degraded almost to his bare animal instincts.”2 The Gothicism of his statement can be seen in traditional Gothic novels such as ‘The Monk: A Romance’ (1796), in which Ambrosio appears to lose all sense of moral reason which culminates in the animalistic hunt of his “prey” Antonia, his “wild” and savage murder after which he is described as “a monster of cruelty, lust and ingratitude.” His “good” instincts had been overthrown by his “base.” In his psychiatry, Henry Maudsley alleged that instinctive impulses were transmitted through inheritance and that criminals and the insane were “as much manufactured […] as are steam trains and calico-printing machines.” His determinism excludes the possibility of free-will and he believed that degenerate individuals “cannot […] regenerate,” and that degeneration was a “transformation […] into an […] abnormal kind.” Without the alleged higher human faculties, an individual would supposedly irreversibly function as primitively as his “brute” ancestor. With reference to the Gothic convention, Rafter shows that, just as the Gothic deconstructs the familiar and the good, “criminal anthropology turned the criminal into a creature utterly different from normal man.” The science of the era, therefore, was often moulded by the sensationalism of the Gothic genre and its obsession with deviation and sin, cruelty and murder. In turn, this then offered a social context in which the Gothic resurgence could take place. For example, similarities between Henry Maudsley’s view and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde are evident3. Dr Jekyll’s moral sense is eradicated by his “draught” which strips away his “respectability” and allows him to “spring headlong into a sea of liberty.” The upper-class doctor becomes his hidden “other,” a physical manifestation of primitive instincts and desires which then undermine the “higher” human faculties.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson’s interest in evolution developed while studying at the University of Edinburgh. During this period Thomas Henry Huxley delivered “the most publicised event of 1868” in the University of Edinburgh, a lecture entitled ‘On the Physical Basis of Life.’ Thomas Henry Huxley claimed that all life descended from protoplasmic substance. In 1863, Thomas Henry Huxley had claimed that humans were related to the ape: “it is quite certain that the ape which most nearly approaches man […] is either the Chimpanzee or the Gorilla.” Thomas Henry Huxley’s work on the human relationship to the ape preceded Charles Robert Darwin’s own ‘The Descent of Man’ (1871) in which Charles Robert Darwin underlined the likelihood that man had descended along with other species from a common ancestor and that man himself had descended from the ape. Absorbing these standpoints, which were increasingly common by the latter part of the century, Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson’s Mr Hyde resembles an ape; he is “troglodytic,” “ape-like” and appears “like a monkey.” Stephen Arata says that the middle and upper classes adopted the term “degeneration” to describe deviances within the lower classes but now found the concept turned upon themselves as their own vulnerability was exposed. Through Mr Hyde, Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson links the beast and the degenerate and postulates the existence of both within the upper class (Dr Jekyll’s world).
The “dormant” Mr Hyde had previously been without physical form but could now “usurp” the “civilised” Dr Jekyll. Mr Hyde represents Dr Jekyll’s predisposition to sin which was strong enough to “usurp” the moral “offices” of life. Stephen Arata notes that the similarities between Mr Hyde and Italian criminologies and physician Cesare Lombroso’s Gothic “born criminal,” are behaviourally and physiologically evident. Cesare Lombroso believed that the degenerate was biologically determined, an idea that is evident in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde through Dr Jekyll’s admission that Mr Hyde had always existed within him. Stephen Arata claims that Cesare Lombroso’s work would have been instantly recognisable to Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson’s readership. Donald Lawler says the same: “[Cesare] Lombroso’s basic ideas had gained currency by the 1880s through […] evolutionary psychologists such as [Robert Louis Balfour] Stevenson’s friend James Sully4.” Referring to the relationship with James Sully, Donald Lawler suggests that Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson would himself have had access to ideas on criminal anthropology.
Cesare Lombroso alleged that the criminal acted on impulse, motivated by their bestial roots and an instinct to kill. These degenerates resembled “savages,” remaining morally and physically undeveloped due to an arrested evolution. Likewise, Mr Hyde is described throughout the story as “pale and dwarfish” and “something hardly human.” Cesare Lombroso concluded that a degenerate was “an atavistic being who reproduces in his person the ferocious instincts of primitive humanity and the inferior animals.” This nature was, says Cesare Lombroso, a direct result of a biologically-determined inheritance: “the most horrendous and inhuman crimes have a biological, atavistic origin in those animalistic instincts.” Henry Maudsley had previously stated: “no doubt such animal traits [in humans] are marks of extreme human degeneracy.” These “animal marks” were perceived to be transmitted through inheritance. In 1878, Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson and Richard Proctor published articles in the same issue of Cornhill Magazine5. ‘Hereditary Traits’ discussed the concept of the inheritance of vices and biological determinism of criminal or immoral behaviour.
Richard Proctor felt that if an individual is predisposed to sin then he should be prevented from transmitting this trait. Dr Jekyll also “found within himself” the tendency to sin: his instincts are concealed by an upper-class desire to be “distinguished” but ultimately he is powerless against his hidden predispositions. The concern that a man’s bestial instincts could govern his behaviour led to a debate about the treatment of criminals.
Removing the individual from society was, to Richard Proctor, the only way to prevent the spread of this propensity to violence. He believed that suicide could be a predetermined hereditary action. Cesare Lombroso wrote that “[suicide] demonstrates the irresistible violence of the passions that drive criminals.” He feared that if an individual was capable of violence against himself then he could be capable of violence against others. Suicide thus became a means of “stamping out” the degenerate.