In this, we are not criticizing Gothic narratives for their content or how mental illness is represented in these contexts as works of art and imagination, but are, instead, proposing that the Gothic is a powerful tool in the quest to destabilize influential prevailing fears and stigmatizing behaviours. This is, at least in part, due to the vividness and compelling nature of Gothic narratives, which explore enduring cultural anxieties. This is also because such Gothic narratives can be read as cautionary tales — offering a social observation, reflection and warnings about what can happen when disorder, chaos and inhumanity are given free rein in the world. As Fred Botting (2002) argues, the Gothic offers a powerful commentary, as central “Gothic figures” in such narratives represent anxieties associated with turning points in cultural-historical progress and, thus, “Gothic conventions” can, as Anne Williams suggests, identify “possible fissures in the system of the symbolic as a whole.”
Mental illness — usually expressed as “madness” or “insanity” is, as many commentators state, a common theme in Gothic literature. David Punter and Glennis Byron, for instance, use madness as one of the key characteristics of the Southern Gothic subgenre, describing it as that literature which is characterized by an emphasis on the grotesque, the macabre and, very often, the violent, investigating madness, decay and despair, and the continuing pressures of the past upon the present.
Josh Boyd continues this linkage of the grotesque and fearful and insanity — similarly finding that Southern Gothic fiction is “characterized by grotesque characters and scenes, explorations of abnormal psychological states, dark humour, violence, and a sense of alienation or futility.” In many cases, as David Punter and Glennis Byron suggest above, dark pasts of mental instability — personal or generational — haunt the present in these narratives, such as in Charlotte Brontë’s ‘Jane Eyre’ (1847) and Emily Jane Brontë’s ‘Wuthering Heights’ (1847), while another characteristic of mental illness, “hyperbole and excess” drive many Gothic dramas.
Another Gothic trope, alienation, that “sense of abjection, the suspension between connectedness and separation,” is also a characteristic of mental illness. The mistreatment of the insane, and the desolate locations where the deranged are incarcerated (and there, hidden, can be neglected and abused) also often appear in Gothic texts whether in classic or modern incarnations. These depictions are so powerful that the horrors of the insane asylum in Gothic fiction echo across the collective imagining and into contemporary renditions (as in the Royal Perth Show example with which we opened this discussion), and it is easy to summon up images of tortured, despairing and desperate inmates suffering the cruelties of staff who are supposed to be tending to, and caring for, them. Contemporary mental health settings, however, as they are represented both in this Gothic literature and in contemporary films, bear little physical resemblance to their fictional counterparts and this cognitive dissonance is, therefore, a good starting point in order to investigate whether there is there any connection in the settings represented in these works of Gothic fiction, with the settings that operate in real life. And if so, we ask, what is the nature of that connection, and what significance does it have for the public, patients and mental health clinicians? In considering this topic, we also ask, therefore, what can be learned by a closer examination of the embedded Gothic tropes?
In this and forthcoming articles, we focus on three popular contemporary films that image mental illness and treatment using recognizably identifiable Gothic images, themes and tropes. These works represent three different filmic genres: ‘Shutter Island’ (2010), ‘The Ward’ (2010) and ‘Girl, Interrupted’ (1999) (a psychological drama). This small selection — while certainly not representative of filmic representations of mental disorder and treatment — can, however, function indicatively in terms of the way the Gothic operates in such filmed narratives. Alshatti noted, for example, that when, in 1765, Horatio Walpole subtitled his novel ‘The Castle of Otranto’ (1764) “a gothic story or romance,” the elements Walpole used in this text — the “gothic castle, Catholic feudal society, damsel in distress, tyrannical patriarchal figure, labyrinthine and subterranean passages, live burials, doubles or doppelgangers” — were identified by other writers as useful and “were appropriated and deployed in multifarious ways,” resulting in the Gothic becoming defined as a genre. In her book ‘Fashioning Gothic Bodies’ (2004), Catherine Spooner notes “a range of characteristic Gothic themes: sensibility, imprisonment, spectrality, haunting, madness, monstrosity, the grotesque.” We can see all of these Gothic themes at work in these films, even the one that would be seem to be the most distant from these modern depictions of mental health care — the hierarchies of feudal society operating in the asylums presented.
While other narratives could certainly be analyzed in this way, these films are, moreover, highly useful in this context as each explores and imagines what happens in many contemporary situations of mental illness; when individuals reach the limits of their reason, when family and group structures are no longer able to function with the stressors confronting them, and the individual “cracks” and moves into a world which is Gothic in the way it is described and experienced. These stories obviously, therefore, although fitting into different overall filmic genres (as above), can also, we propose, be described as Gothic in their approach to mental illness. While obviously not representative of all imaging of mental health treatment in contemporary popular culture, these particular narratives have also been chosen for the ways they deal with narratives of decay and chaos on both the individual and social level. This involves the loss of personal autonomy and maintenance of well-being, a loss of trust in the caring function of medicine and nursing, and a loss of faith that modernity can ease personal burdens and solve problems — and each of these is highly instructive for our purpose. These films are also riveting contemporary popular culture narratives that are worthy of scholarly consideration that adds to that already in place.
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